PL/SQL Tutorial

Welcome to the website. I hope that you can consider this website to be an useful resource of pl/sql language for both beginners and advanced developers.
You can read and learn about pl/sql language using simple tutorials with syntax and examples.

About PL/SQL language!

The PL/SQL language is an extension of SQL language developed by Oracle Corporation and the full name it is the Procedural Language/Structured Query Language.

The PL/SQL language is a procedural programming language which allows data manipulation and sql query to be included in blocks. PL/SQL can be used to group multiple instructions in a single block and sending the entire block to the server in a single call.

The main sections on language PL/SQL are:

Data Types – used to declare variables, the basic data types are: number, varchar2, date, clob.
DML Statements – SQL statements like insert, update, delete.
DDL Statements – define and manage the structure of database objects, such as tables, indexes, and views.
Select Query – contains the main keywords used in SQL queries: where, group by, having, in, order by.
Table Joins – shows the ways to join several tables together.
Stored Procedures – learn how to create and use a stored procedure.
Functions – contains the list with Oracle PL/SQL functions.
Collections and Records – shows how to define and use a collection or record in a database.
Cursors – explain what a cursor is, the types of cursors and how they are used.
Exception Handling – guides you how to use exceptions to handle errors.
Triggers – shows you how to create and modify a trigger on a database table.
Views – syntax to create or replace view.
Indexes – describes how to create an index and the types of indexes.
Constraints – explain how to create constraints such as: primary key, foreign key.
Error Messages – contains the list of error messages, causes and solutions.
Data Dictionary – shows informations about the schema objects.
Synonym – syntax to create synonyms.
Interview Questions and Answers – list with interview questions and answers.
Aggregate functions – contains aggregate functions like avg, count, sum, max, min.
Analytic functions – contains analytic functions like row_number, rank, dense_rank, listagg.
Conversion functions – contains conversion functions like cast, to_number, to_char, to_date.
Date functions – describes date functions like sysdate, date, add_months, day, year.
String functions – learn about string functions like concat, length, lower, upper, replace, substr.
REGEXP – introduction to SQL regular expressions functions.
Packages – can be used to encapsulate data and hide implementation details.
JSON – used to parse JSON data, create JSON documents, and extract data from JSON documents.
XML – describes how to manipulate and store XML documents.
Tables in SQL – A Complete Guide – shows how to define tables in SQL.
Dynamic SQL – allows you to construct a SQL statement based on runtime conditions, such as user input or data in a table, and then execute that statement.
Advanced SQL Techniques for Data Engineering – contains advanced SQL techniques for Data Engineering: Window Functions, Common Table Expressions, and more.
PIVOT – allows users to transform rows of data into columns, providing a more structured and readable format for analysis.
UNPIVOT – allows users to convert columns into rows. This operation is particularly useful for reshaping and reorganizing data in a tabular format.
ROLLUP – enables users to generate subtotal and grand total calculations efficiently, simplifying the process of summarizing and aggregating data.
CUBE – It is an extension of the GROUP BY clause and enables the creation of subtotals and grand totals for all possible combinations of specified columns.

Here are some of the key benefits of using PL/SQL:

Procedural Capabilities: PL/SQL is a procedural language, which means it supports procedural programming features such as loops, conditions, and exception handling. This enables developers to create complex and sophisticated applications by organizing code into modular units.

Improved Performance: PL/SQL is a compiled language, and its programs are stored in compiled form within the database. This results in faster execution as compared to interpreted languages like SQL. PL/SQL code is executed directly on the Oracle Database server, reducing network traffic and enhancing overall system performance.

Transaction Management: PL/SQL provides robust support for transaction management. Transactions ensure the consistency and integrity of data by allowing a series of related SQL statements to be executed as a single, atomic operation. This ensures that either all the changes are applied, or none at all, maintaining the integrity of the database.

Exception Handling: PL/SQL includes a robust exception-handling mechanism, allowing developers to gracefully handle errors and exceptions. This helps in writing robust and fault-tolerant code by providing a structured way to deal with unexpected situations.

Code Reusability: PL/SQL supports the creation of procedures and functions, promoting code reusability. Developers can encapsulate frequently used logic into reusable units, reducing redundancy and making maintenance more manageable.

Security Features: PL/SQL provides security features like stored procedures and functions, allowing developers to control access to sensitive database operations. This enhances the overall security of the database by restricting direct access to certain functionalities.

Programming resources:

T-SQL tutorial
Oracle tutorial